Consult for Type 1, Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
What is Diabetes?
It is not easy to live with any form of diabetes. One needs to regularly check the blood sugar levels, be disciplined about their diet and carefully manage regular treatments like insulin. It may seem to be too much at times and that is the reason for getting the proper advice and support is so important. One may often find it overwhelming at times.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) relates to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of Hyperglycemia. Different types of Diabetes are a result of the permutation and combination of the complex interactions between environmental factors and genetics. These factors determine the type of Diabetes and contribute to hyperglycemia, which shows decreased glucose utilization, reduced insulin reaction and more glucose production.
What are the causes of Diabetes?
Diabetes can occur due to immune-mediated causes or may also develop spontaneously owing to an unknown cause. This is known as TYPE 1 Diabetes which is primarily due to the destruction of beta cells and leads to a deficiency of insulin in the body.
TYPE 2 is the other form of diabetes which has a range from insulin deficiency to secretion defect of insulin due to insulin resistance in the body.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs when a pregnant lady (who is not diabetic) cannot tolerate any degree of glucose.
What are the symptoms of Diabetes?
- Excessive eating (polyphagia)
- Excessive drinking of water (Polydipsia)
- Excessive urinating (Polyuria).
- Extreme fatigue or tiredness
- Mental status changes
- Unexplained and rapid weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Nausea and vomiting
- Recurrent infections
- Poor healing of wounds
- Skin problems
Tingling or numbness in toe /feet Often many are not even aware that they are diabetic. Should these symptoms surface, Get in touch with a GP today for correct advice.
What is the treatment for Diabetes?
Diabetes treatment incorporates the lowering of glucose agents in the body. Physical activity is a necessary aspect, ranging from mild to moderate and in addition to it, there should be a low intake of carbohydrates. Oral Hypoglycemic drugs and Insulin are also advised as part of the treatment.
Besides, lifestyle modification is another important aspect that includes changes in physical activity, diet, quitting smoking and alcohol, effective weight management, controlling blood pressure, etc
Types of Diabetes
- Type 1 diabetes A serious form of diabetes usually affects children and teenagers where there is no or insufficient production of insulin due to the auto-immune process.
- Type 2 diabetes Type 2 Diabetes is due to resistance of body to insulin, usually affecting overweight, physically less active, elderly population (>35 yrs. of age).
- Prediabetes Higher blood sugar levels but not high enough to be called diabetes
Blood Sugar Levels and Ranges
|Glucose Levels in Individuals||Fasting Blood Glucose||After Eating|
|Normal sugar levels||70-99 mg/dl||70-140 mg/dl|
|High Risk/ Prediabetes||100-125 mg/dl||141-199 mg/dl|
|Diabetes||126 mg/dl or higher||200 mg/dl and higher|
Source: The Global Diabetes Community
Prevention of Diabetes in Individuals at high risk
Lifestyle intervention prevents the type 2 diabetes in high risk people includes
- Healthy diet - Diet plays a major role in preventing the diabetes (Refer Do's and Don'ts table below)
- Exercise - Physical inactivity, being overweight and sedentary lifestyle is likely to put an individual in high risk group of developing type 2 Diabetes. Regular workouts, brisk walking and fitness regimes reduce the risk of type 2 Diabetes. It helps in losing weight and increases insulin sensitivity with better glucose control.
Do's and Don'ts of a healthy diet
|Consume Whole grain and whole grain products||Avoid Refined and processed foods|
|Drink water and organic green tea||Sugary drinks and refined carbohydrates|
|Eat high fiber and low carbohydrate diet||Avoid Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption|
Few spices such as Turmeric (curcumin), Fenugreek seeds powder, Jamun seed powder, Neem leaves powder, Gooseberry (Amla) juice, and Bitter gourd juice are useful in diabetes. Consumption of green tea and diluted apple cider vinegar may help in controlling type 2 Diabetes.
|Factors||Type 1 diabetes||Type 2 diabetes|
Autoimmune Destruction of Insulin producing cell
Immune system attacks the islet cells in the pancreas
No insulin production
Increased Blood Sugar
Resistance to insulin
Body’s inability to effectively use whatever insulin is made
Resistant to insulin
Increased Blood Sugar
|Which Age group is affected?||Children and teenagers; But can affect any age.||Typically, > 35 yrs. of age|
|Statistics||10% of Diabetes cases||90% of Diabetes cases|
|Risk Factors||Genetic mostly, and environmental factors||
› Age ≥ 45
› Less active physically
› Family history of diabetes
› History of high blood pressure, high cholesterol
› Gestational Diabetes
|How does disease starts?||Very Quick||Slowly over the years|
|Treatment||Insulin, Diet and Lifestyle modification||Diet, Lifestyle modification, Oral Hypoglycemic Medications and Insulin|
Increased thirst, Frequent urination, Extreme fatigue or tiredness, Increased Hunger, Poor healing of wounds, Skin problems and Tingling or numbness in toes /feet are usually early signs.
Body is not able to regulate glucose levels, so the glucose stays in the blood either due to
- Insufficient or no production of insulin
- Body’s inability to effectively use whatever insulin is made
Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes are 2 major types of Diabetes. Prediabetes is a state with increased blood sugar levels (not high enough to fall under type 2 diabetes)
Long duration of poorly controlled blood sugar can be associated with serious complications like heart attack, stroke and end stage kidney disease. Type 1 Diabetes can kill if left untreated. Type 2 Diabetes cannot kill but death due to heart diseases are reported.
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