Control High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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What is Hypertension?

Hypertension (High blood pressure) is one of the leading causes of the global burden of diseases. High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough to eventually cause health problems, such as Coronary Heart disease, congestive heart disease, congestive heart failure, ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, renal failure and peripheral artery disease.

What causes Hypertension?

The causes of hypertension can be traced to:

  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Obesity, lack of exerciseand sedentary lifestyle
  • Low intake of calcium and potassium
  • Genetic considerations
  • Other underlying medical conditions such as Pheochromocytoma (A hormone-secreting tumour that can occur in the adrenal glands).

What are the Symptoms of Hypertension?

  • Headache that usually occurs in the morning and is localized to occipital region
  • Palpitations
  • Chest Pain
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Vision Problems
  • Easy fatigability

What is The management of Hypertension?

The management of hypertension would include:

  • Lifestyle modification (weight reduction)
  • Dietary salt reduction
  • Moderation of alcohol consumption
  • Physical activity
  • 5. Pharmacological therapy
    • Diuretics
    • ACE inhibitors Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
    • Beta blockers
    • Alpha- androgenic Blockers
    • Calcium channel blockers

If you do suffer from hypertension, especially over a long period and experience breathlessness or sudden bursts of pain, consult a doctor online immediately. It is very important, otherwise, due to the lack of oxygen in the blood supply, it may give rise to the untoward situation.

Blood Pressure[1] chart for Categorization

Classification Systolic BP (mm Hg) Diastolic (mm Hg)
Normal Blood Pressure <120 mm Hg and < 80 mm Hg
Elevated blood pressure Between 120–129 and < 80
Stage 1 hypertension Between 130–139 or 80–89
Stage 2 hypertension 140 or higher or 90 or higher

Treatment of High Blood Pressure (BP)

Treatment of high blood pressure includes a healthy heart Diet, lifestyle modifications and medicines[3]. This can very well control hypertension but does not cure it.

Home remedies to control High Blood Pressure

The Person with elevated B.P and stage 1 high B.P.[with no risk or history of stroke /heart disease] should consult the doctor for adjustment in diet and lifestyle. Medicines are recommended for stage 1 hypertension (with risks of developing Cardiovascular Disease) and Stage 2 hypertension.

The regular blood pressure check is needed to prevent complications.

Blood Pressure Monitoring Methods[8]

  • Clinic readings by Doctors.
  • Home- blood pressure monitoring [9] by the patient
  • 24-hour ambulatory readings

FAQ

Unhealthy Diet with high salt consumption, lack of physical activity, being overweight, stress, smoking and alcohol consumption are the common causes of Hypertension.

High blood pressure may not cause any symptoms for a long time, though some people might experience morning headaches, nosebleeds, dizziness, flushed face, fatigue and vision changes.

Low salt in diet, regular exercise, reduction in stress and non-smoking will lead to lowering in blood pressure.

No, it does not cause high blood pressure.


References

[1] 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guidelines for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults. Available at: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000065

[2] Hypertensive Crisis include Hypertensive urgency where patients either need urgent medical attention, or immediate changes in medication if no damage to the organ, or Hypertensive Emergency where Immediate hospitalization is needed if there are signs of organ damage (brain, heart, or kidneys).

[3] Lama Ghazi and Suzanne Oparil et al. Impact of the SPRINT Trial on Hypertension Management. Annual Review of Medicine. Vol. 69:81-95

[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20226955

[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23525435

[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16922819

[7] https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.hyp.0000238327.41911.52

[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639494/

[9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6159400/

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